File Handling

File Handling:

Define File:

A file is refer to a collection of associated data that a computers treats as a single unit. Computers store files to secondary storage so that the contents of files remain intact while a computer shuts down. While a computer reads a file, it copies the file through the storage device to memory; while it writes into a file, it transfers data from memory to the storage device.

File-handling is copying, opening, closing, writing, reading, deleting,  renaming the files etc.

There are two types of data files:

1. Sequential access files:

These files ought to be accessed in the similar order in which they were written. This procedure is analogous to audio cassette tapes where you ought to fast forward or rewind by the songs sequentially to obtain to a specific song. To access data from a sequential file, you ought to start at the starting of the file and search through the whole file for the data that you desire.

2. Random access files:

These files are analogous to audio compact disks whereas you can access easily any song regardless of the order in which the songs were recorded. Random access files permit instant access any data in the file. Unluckily, random access files frequently occupy more disk space than sequential access files.

File handling methods:

File handling in C:


FILE *fopen(const char *path, const char *mode);
The fopen() function is utilized to open a file and connected an I/O stream along with it. This function contains two arguments. The primary argument is a pointer to a string having name of the file to be opened whereas the second argument is the mode in which the file is to be opened.

fread() and fwrite():

size_t fread(void *ptr, size_t size, size_t nmemb, FILE *stream);
size_t fwrite(const void *ptr, size_t size, size_t nmemb, FILE *stream);

The functions fread/fwrite is utilized for reading/writing data from/to the file opened by fopen function. These functions contain three arguments. The first is a pointer to buffer utilized for reading/writing the data. The data read/written is in the shape of ‘nmemb’ elements each ‘size’ bytes long.


int fclose(FILE *fp);
The fclose() function primary flushes the stream opened by fopen() and afterwards closes the underlying descriptor. Upon the successful completion of this function returns 0 else end of file (eof) is returned. In failure, if the stream is accessed further then the behavior remains undefined.

File handling in C++

The I/O system of C++ has a set of classes that described the file handling methods. These contain if stream, f stream and of stream. These classes are derived from f stream base and from the corresponding i/o stream class. In order to open the files following methods are utilized. .

A. Opening a file by using constructor: To open the file built a file stream object to manage the stream by using the suitable class that is the stream is utilized to create the output stream and the class is stream to build the input stream. After creating object initialize the file object along the desired filename. For instance the following statement opens a file named “results” for output. Of stream out file (“results”)

It creates out file as an of stream, object that manages the output stream, likewise the following statements described in file as an if stream object and attaches it to the file “data ‘for reading If stream in file (“data”)

B. Opening file by using open (): The function open can be utilized to open multiple file that use the similar stream object. To open a file, first we built a single stream object.

File handling in C#

It is an unmanaged resource in the application system. It is beyond application domain. This is not dealt through CLR. Data is stored up in two manners either persistent or non persistent. While a programmer opens a file for writing or reading, it turns stream. Fundamentally, stream is a sequence of bytes moving through a source to a terminus over a communicating path. The two major streams are output streams and input stream. Input stream is used to read and output stream is utilized to write. The System.IO namespace let in various classes for file handling. Bring up class of file processing is stream. Stream is an abstract class that is used as the parent of the classes that in realism, implement the essential operations.

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