Chemical and Physical Instrumentation, Chemistry tutorial

Chemical and Physical Instrumentation in Environmental Sciences

Instrumentation is concerned through the methods in Environmental Sciences that includes data collection, manipulation and information presentation. Instrumentation is utilized in about every activity and creating system, where consistent and consistent operations are needed to give the means of monitoring, recording and managing a procedure to continue it at a desired state. A characteristic ecological activity yields many procedure variables, which have to be computed and manipulated. Variables these as boiler level, temperature and pressure, turbine speed, producer output and many others must to be managed prudently to ensure a safe and efficient station operation. Instrumentation is frequently termed to as the power behind scientific investigations. This course therefore introduces us to basic instrumentation utilized in ecological Science. Its study therefore needs a sound, broad based education in such areas. The present course structure though employs a beginner's approach to the learn of instrumentation and measurements in Environmental Science.

The 1st chapter of this course introduces us to the scope of instrumentation in ecological science and technology. It notifies us what to expect in the course of the study of this course substance. The 2nd chapter is on the instrumentation for field examinations. Emphasis is though on remote sensing related equipments. The concepts of remote sensing and allied instruments are conversed.

Laboratory equipment in this category includes the atomic absorption spectrophotometer, mass spectrometer and colorimeter. Information about such instruments and their operation techniques are given in the course material. Unit three dwells on vegetation and biota investigation using a quadrat examination method. The employ application of quadrat and mode of interpretation of data gathered using this survey technique is conversed in this chapter. 

About instrumentation

The meaning of instrumentation can't be positioned to a particular discipline. It is not rigid, depending on whom or what is essential it. It could be usually illustrated as the study, development and manufacture of scientific instruments and equipment. But for our class, we  will simply define instrumentation as instruments and procedures utilized in collecting and analyzing data in a study.3.2 kinds of Instrumentation for Environmental Studies Different   types  of  data  are  required  for  different categories of environmental  studies;  hence  different  instruments and procedures for their data collection and analyses exist too. But for the sake of clarification, the different methods of data acquisition can be immediately explained as the subsequent:

a. Instrumentation for field observations: Instrumentation for such comprises land survey   equipments, both analogue and digital. Instruments for analogue approach to field survey comprise tape, arrow, Günter chain, etc. Digital instruments include Total Stations, Global Positioning Systems (GPS).There are as well several indirect techniques of extracting information, mainly from aerial photographs and satellite imageries. Other categories of instrument for field surveys comprise samplers that are of diverse kinds depending on the parameter to instance; air, water, sediment and soil samples. We as well have testers or field equipments for direct observation, as well as pH and electrical conductivity meters, quadrats; for vegetation sampling, tape, and ball of string, scissors, clipboard, pens and paper.

b. Instrumentation for laboratory analyses: In a meticulous application the selection of a technique will be depend on the particular requirements:

 1. What species (parameters) are to be computed;

2. Is the simultaneous determination of several parameters necessary; and

3. What are the needed accuracy, time resolution, and spatial resolution?

4. Logistic requirements as power utilization, mounting of light sources or retro-reflectors or accommodation of the instrument on mobile platforms.

Categorization of laboratory equipments Laboratory methods are together specialized and universal procedures. Specialized techniques permit only one parameter (specie) to be noticed via an instrument, for example UV absorption detection. Alternatively widespread techniques permit one to compute many species through one instrument. One more necessary property of  instruments is the spatial range of the measurements, generally expressed in terms of in situ or remote  sensing measurements. While in situ measurements come close to  the  ideal  to find out specie concentrations in a 'spot' in space that is generally very close to the instrument, remote sensing methods permit one to create measurements from a huge distance, perhaps as far as from a satellite instrument in the earth's orbit. It therefore generally provides averages of the concentration over a comparatively huge area. Remote sensing techniques always rely on the sensing of electromagnetic radiation. Instances of laboratory instruments belonging to either category include(i) gas chromatographic (universal technique, in situ), (ii) optical spectroscopy  (universal technique, in situ and remote sensing),(iii) mass spectrometry (MS),(iv) any other (in situ) technique, where the most generally employed principles include  chemiluminescence (for example for the detection of NO or O), photoacoustic detection,  electrochemical  methods, matrix isolation), and  chromatography (IC).

It is significant that we reminder that field surveys equipment these as total stations, GPS and aerial and satellite sensors  are as well remote sensing devise. This is  since  they are a devise that attain information from the real world surface without being in physical contact through the object from that information is being obtained. We will learn more in the subsequent chapter.

Remote sensing technique

In much of remote sensing, the method includes a procedure of interaction between incident radiation and the targets of interest. This is exemplified via utilize of imaging systems where the subsequent 7 elements are engaged. As we know, though that remote sensing as well involves the sensing of emitted energy and the employ of non-imaging sensors. The seven elements in Fig below comprise the remote sensing process from beginning to end Fig: Process of the remote sensing technique

  • Energy Source or Illumination (A) this is the 1st condition for remote sensing is to have an energy source that illuminates or gives electromagnetic energy to the target of interest.
  • Radiation and the Atmosphere (B) as the energy travels from its source to the target, it will come in contact through and interact by the ambiance it passes through. This contact might occur a 2nd time as the energy travels from the target to the sensor.
  • Interaction through the Target (C) once the energy makes its way to the target through the atmosphere; it relates through the target depending on the properties of both the target and the radiation.
  • Recording of Energy through the Sensor (D) after the energy has been scattered via, or emitted from the target, we need a sensor (remote-not in contact with the target) to collect and record the electromagnetic radiation.
  • Transmission, Reception, and Processing (E) the energy recorded via the sensor has to be transmitted, frequently in electronic form, to a getting and processing station where the data are processed into an image (hardcopy and/or digital).
  • Interpretation and Analysis (F) the processed image is interpreted, visually and/or digitally or electronically, to extract information about the target that was illuminated.
  • Application (G) The final element of the remote sensing process is achieved when we apply the information we have been able to extract from the imagery about the target in order to better understand it, disclose several new information, or help in solving a particular problem.

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