What is cannizaro reaction? Explain with example.

Aldehydes which do not have 606_amines with aldehydes3.png -hydrogen atom, such as formaldehyte and benzaldehyte, when heated with concentrated (50%)alkali solution, give a mixture of alcohol and the salt of a carboxylic acid.
1587_cannizaro reaction.png 
In this reaction, the aldehyde undergoes disproportionate. It implies that one molecule of aldehydes is oxidized to carboxylic acid and the other is reduced to alcohol. Ketones do not provide this reaction.
 The reaction is also possible in all compounds which lack 606_amines with aldehydes3.png -hydrogen atom. For example,

1131_cannizaro reaction1.png 


It must be noted that in crossed Cannizzaro's reaction, when an aldehydes is treated with formaldehyde and aqueous basic solution then it is formaldehyde that undergoes oxidation.
2028_cannizaro reaction2.png 

Compounds containing two carbonyl groups undergo internal Cannizzaro's reaction.
738_cannizaro reaction3.png 
On the other hand, aldehydes containing 606_amines with aldehydes3.png -hydrogen atoms when heated with concentrated alkali give brown resinous mass.
1335_cannizaro reaction4.png

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