What are homogenous catalyst? Give few examples.

When a catalyst mixes homogeneously with the reactants and forms a single phase, the catalyst is said to be homogeneous and this type of catalysis is called homogeneous catalysis. Some more examples of homogeneous catalysis are:
    
SO2 is oxidized to SO2 in the presence of nitric oxide (NO) as catalyst.

2141_homogenous catalyst.png 
    
Oxidization of CO by O2 in the presence of NO as catalyst.

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Preparation of diethyl ether from ethyl alcohol using conc. H2SO4 as catalyst

1588_homogenous catalyst2.png 
    
Hydrolysis of esters using H2SO4 as catalyst

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Hydrolysis of sucrose in the presence of dilute sulphuric acid.

84_homogenous catalyst4.png 

Mechanism of homogeneous catalysis 

As pointed out earlier, the catalyst combines with one of the reactant to form some intermediate compound. The intermediate compounds being unstable decompose or combine with each other reacting species to regenerate the catalyst along with the formation of final products. Let us understand the catalytic action of NO in the oxidation of SO2.
 
In this reaction, NO (the catalyst) combines with oxygen to form NO2 (intermediate). The intermediate is consumed in the next step and the catalyst is regenerated.

1574_homogenous catalyst5.png

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