Vroom Model - Motivation - Organizatinoal Behavior

This model can be graphically depicted as follows:

The management must recognize and determine the situation as it exists and take steps to improve upon these three factors of expectancy, instrumentality and valence for the purpose of behavioral so that these elements achieve the highest value individually for example, if a worker exhibits a poorly motivated behavior, it could be due to:

1)     Low effort- performance expectancy:  the worker may lack the necessary skills and training in order to improve the relationship between effort and performance.

2)     Low effort -performance-reward instrumentality relationship: the worker may believe that similar performance does not lead to similar rewards. The reward policy may be inconsistent and may depend upon factors other than simply the performance that the worker may be aware of or may not consider fair. For example, a professor may do research and have professional articles published in order to get a promotion and may find out later that more weight was given to community service rather than research at the time of promotion. Accordingly. Accordingly, the performance appraisal methods and the associated performance rewards may not be equitable. Management must re-evaluate the appraisal techniques and formulate policies that strengthen performance reward relationship in a consistent,  fair and equitable manner.

3)     Low reward-valence Relationship: since the managers may look at the value of a reward Differently than the worker, the management  must investigate the desirability of the rewards that are given on the basis of performance. While monetary benefits may be more desirable for some workers, the need to be formally appreciated may be  a more  valuable reward for others for similar task oriented activities. Vroom's model tries to explain as to what factors affect a person's choice of a particular course of action among all available alternatives and why factors affect a person's choice  of a particular course of action among all available alternatives and why a person would be better motivated towards achievement of certain goals as compared to some other goals. Accordingly, managers must understand and analyze the preferences of particular subordinates in order to design "individualized motivation packages" to meet their needs, keeping in mind that all such packages should be perceived as generally fair by all concerned parties.

Critical evaluation

I.         The theory is not empirically tested,

II.        The theory is difficult to apply,

III.       It is overly relational,

IV.        The predictive accuracy is doubtful.

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