1) Declining productivity and the Japanese threat: the challenge is to reverse declining trends: ensuring better interplay between management approaches and techniques, and employees.
2) Revolution in middle management: A big cut in the middle management cadre; restructuring and redefining the roles of those who are left out; emphasis on knowledge and skills; of people in manufacturing and marketing.
3) Computerized offices and factories: the use of personal computers; revolution in the way organizations ate structure and the way the managers function.
4) Equal opportunities for minorities and women: need for research on minorities and women in management.
5) Union-management cooperation: growing competition, arising from globalization, generates union-management cooperation; the challenge is to understand whether the management and the union can establish a mutually beneficial, win-win relationship.
6) Innovative plans for special career needs: with more dual-career families and growing concern for quality of work life, there is an increasing is of innovative approaches flextime and four-day (40-hour) weeks: job sharing (two or more people share a job and determine their schedules themselves) and personal time-bank plan (saving sick leave time. Regular leave time and holiday time and utilizing it in any other way or encasing it).