What is the easiest way to determine the gender using the

In order to calculate the height, in inches, follow the formulas below for each of the bones. Be sure to indicate height not only in the total number of inches, but in terms of feet and inches (i.e., a person who is 62 inches is also described as being 5 feet, 2 inches tall, or 5' 2"). NOTE: The calculations, of course, are different when measurements are in centimeters.

 Bone(See Image) Formula for calculating Body Height (in inches), but only if you use the, "uh, 'merican" system! Female Male Femur Height equals (length of femur x 1.94)  +  28.7 Height equals (length of femur x 1.88)  +  32 Humerus Height equals (length of humerus x 2.8)  +  28.1 Height equals (length of humerus x 2.9)  +  27.8 Radius Height equals (length of radius x 3.3)  +  32 Height equals (length of radius x 3.3)  +  34

In order to calculate the height, in cm, as most of the world does, follow the slightly different formulas below for each of the bones.

 Bone(See Image) Formula for calculating Body Height (in cm) . . . The System EVERYONE ELSE Uses! Female Male Femur Height equals (length of femur x 1.94)  +  72.9 Height equals (length of femur x 1.88)  +  81.3 Humers Height equals (length of humerus x 2.8)  +  71.4 Height equals (length of humerus x 2.9)  +  70.6 Radius Height equals (length of radius x 3.3)  +  81.3 Height equals (length of radius x 3.3)  +  86.4

Now plug in the following numbers into the formula to determine the height to the nearest 1/2 inch (expressed both as inches -- x" -- and as feet and inches -- x' + y") of the deceased:

 Gender Bone Length CalculationsSHOW YOUR WORK! Heightx" in Inches Heightx' + y"(Feet + Inches) Multiply by 2.54 to get the Heightin cm Female Femur 17.9" Male Femur 17.9"

NOTE: The same length is shown to illustrate the different calculations required for the same measurements, depending on the gender of the deceased.

 Female Humerus 11.5" Male Humerus 11.5" Female Radius 9.3" Male Radius 9.3"

Check Your Work using our Bone Length to Body Height Calculator

 Gender Bone Length CalculationsSHOW YOUR WORK! Heightin cm Multiply by 0.3937 to get the Heightin inches Height in Feet & Inches Female Femur 45.5 cm Male Femur 45.5 cm

NOTE: The same length is shown to illustrate the different calculations required for the same measurements, depending on the gender of the deceased.

 Female Humerus 29.2 cm Male Humerus 29.2 cm Female Radius 23.6 cm Male Radius 23.6 cm

QUESTIONS:

1. What is the easiest way to determine the gender (using the skeleton) of an individual, and why?

2. What is the easiest way to tell (using the skeleton) whether a teenager is lying about her/his age, and why?

3. Why can determining gender from a skull be difficult?

4. Why should a forensic anthropologist use more than one bone (if possible) to determine the height of an individual?

5. What other issue is important to question four, especially if there is only one bone from which to work?