(a) What do you understand by the principle of locality of reference and explain how this is exploited in cache design.
(b) Consider a 32-bit microprocessor that has an on-chip 16 kilobyte direct-mapped cache. Assume that the design has a cache line size of four 32-bit words.
Draw a block diagram of this cache showing its organization and how the different address fields are used to determine a cache hit/miss.
Where in the cache is the byte from main memory location ABCDE8F8 mapped?