Theories of Human Communication

Theories of Human Communication:

Human communication occurs while one or more people send and receive messages. All of the communication acts have the following elements: sources, context and receivers, channels, messages, noise and effects.

Context:

There are four types of communication contexts: social/psychological (includes the status of a relationship or the significance of the condition); physical (the environment where communication occurs); temporal (the time of the interaction); and cultural (the backgrounds of the people communicating).

Sources and Receivers:

While you speak to someone, you are the source of the message. While you listen to someone, you are the receiver of message. These two functions are not exclusive mutually, as we simultaneously send and receive messages in conversations.

Messages:

We send messages verbally and nonverbally both and they can be transmitted from a combination of all of our senses.

Channels:

These are the mediums used in communication, such as the chat room or telephone.

Noise:

It is anything that prevents you from receiving a message. Noise can include thoughts that distract you or loud noises that make it hard to hear.

Effects:

There are effects to every communication act that we engage in. The effects may be cognitive (which modify our thinking); affective (which modify our feelings); or psychomotor (which affects bodily movements).

Communication Theory as a Field:

In the year of 1999 Craig wrote a landmark article "Communication Theory as a Field" which expanded the conversation about disciplinary identity in the field of communication. At that time, communication theory textbooks had slight to no agreement on how to shows the field or what theories to include in their textbooks. This article has since become the foundational framework for four distinct textbooks to introduce the field of communication. In this article Craig "proposes a vision for communication theory that takes a vast step toward unifying this instead disparate field and addressing its complication." To move toward this unifying vision Craig target on communication theory as a practical discipline and illustrates how "various traditions of communication theory can be engaged on the practice of communication in dialogue."In this deliberative procedure theorists would engage in dialog regarding the "practical implications of communication theories." In the end Craig proposes seven distinct traditions of Communication Theory & outlines how each one of them would engage the others in dialogue.

Theories of Human Communication:

“Theories are not just things to be read & learned. Constantly they are evolving works.” Theory saves your lot of time .Various concepts & theories have been developed to help the practice of communication. In the simplest manner, communication is a practice. By practice, here don’t mean the practice that a player does before the match. By practice, here means the total set of activities that are meaningful in the culture of Cricket. We can take an instance of a dancer. Whereas learning & practicing dance movements, a dancer learns, styles, coordination and synchronization. Planning and coordinating will be effectual if they are observed and theories are constructed out of them. Human communication is also a practice. There are various theories of communication given by scholars from time to time. The analysis of various theories and practice of communication can be put to synthesis of our communication theory.

Characteristics of Human Communication theory:

Human communication has various key characteristics.

A. The procedure of communication is ongoing, continuous and dynamic.

B. Communication starts with the self.

C. Communication is irreversible, or inerasable.

D. Communication is unrepeatable.

E. Communication is reciprocal.

F. Communication is transactional.

G. Communication exists in some kind of context, or setting.

  • Interpersonal communication includes two individuals.
  • Group communication exists amongst three or more people who have some common cause.
  • Organizational communication takes place in a formal institution with a hierarchy, common goals, and individualized tasks.
  • Mass communication along with a population takes places through some form of public media.

Importance of Human Communication:

Communication, indirectly and directly, plays vital role in society:

Culture:

In according to Intercultural Communication, culture is “learned patterns of attitudes and behavior shared by a group of people.” Culture is all around you and it is resistant by communication. Communication holds together a society's shared values. While members of a culture receive the similar messages, the culture passes the similar customs and values down from generation to generation.

Language:

The procedure of communication is symbolic. You use verbal and nonverbal both symbols to make sense of your surroundings, generates your own symbols and make modification. According to Intercultural Communication, the structure of grammar, language based on the meanings of words, how receivers build meanings and the sounds of words. Through power of observation, it’s apparent that language is not universal. For instance, if you speak English to a person who speaks only Spanish, that person will not guess what you are saying. It is not because the person is not as developed as you, but because of a apparent language barrier. Becoming bilingual / multilingual can expand greatly your communication skills and make you a precious asset to potential employers all over the globe.

Nonverbal:

It communication is at least as significant as verbal skills. If your nonverbal message does not match with your verbal message, then your verbal message will be misinterpreted or ineffective. Nonverbal communication includes your body language, gestures, facial expressions, and voice. According to Say it at Work, 55 % of the effectiveness of speech based on visual cues, and 38 % of the verbal message is interpreted by the tone of voice, voice pitch & pace. That means 93 % of the message you communicate whereas talking depends on nonverbal instead of verbal communication.

Gender:

Another significant aspect of communication is gendered communication. Similar to language, gender rules are learned & vary from culture to culture. Targeting on gender in the United States, masculine communication is “ambitious, strong, successful, rational and emotionally controlled,” according to Gender Lives. Feminine communication targets on physical attractiveness and being deferential, nurturing, emotionally expressive and illustrating concern along with people and relationships. Understanding a society's gender expectations allow people know what society expects from them, even if that seems unfair.

Identity:

It is how you communicate yourself to the world. Since you were born, you have been sending unintentional and intentional messages and developing certain unique traits. With no communication, you would have difficulty developing your own identity; self-expression would be nonexistent since you would have no movies, music, fashion or slang. Communication is such vital aspect in your life that without it, you would not be you.

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