Bragg’s spectrometer method:
This technique is one of the significant methods for studying crystals employing X-rays. The apparatus comprises of X-ray tube from which a narrow beam of X-rays is permitted to fall on the crystal mounted on a rotating table. The rotating table is given with scale and vernier, from which the angle of incidence, θ can be calculated.
Figure: X-ray spectrometer
An arm that is rotating around similar axis as the crystal table carries an ionisation chamber. The rays reflected from the crystal come into the ionisation chamber and ionise the gas present within. Due to the ionisation, current is produced that is measured by electrometer. The current of ionisation is a direct measure of intensity of reflected beam from the crystal. For various angles of incidence, the corresponding ionisation current is calculated from the electrometer. Such values are plotted in the form of graph.
For sodium chloride, the maximum reflection or peaks for 100 plane taken at θ = 5.9°, 11.85° & 18.15°. The sines of such angles are 0.103, 0.205 and 0.312 that are in the ratio 1:2:3. These peaks symbolize the first, second and third order reflections. The ratio verifies the rightness of Bragg’s equation.
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