This section derives as of papers co-authored with Irv Traiger and Franco Putzolu.
The system comprises of objects that are related in certain ways. These relationships are most excellent thought of as assertions about the objects. Illustrations of such assertions are:
‘Names are an index for Telephone-numbers’.
“Count_of_x is the quantity of employees in department x”.
The system state is said to be reliable if it satisfies all its assertions. In a few cases the database must become temporarily inconsistent in order to transform it to a new consistent state. For illustration adding a new employee involves several atomic actions and updating several fields. The database perhaps inconsistent until all these updates has been completed.
To manage with these brief inconsistencies sequences of atomic actions are grouped to form transactions. Transactions are the units of consistency. They are big atomic actions on the system state that transform it from one consistent state to a new consistent state. Transactions protect consistency. If a few action of a transaction fails then the entire transaction is 'undone,' thereby returning the database to a consistent state. Therefore transactions are also the units of recovery. System error, Hardware failure, deadlock, protection violations and program error are each a source of such failure.
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