Encoder Decoder and Multiplexer

Introduction to Encoder, Decoder and Multiplexer:


An encoder is a device which converts information from one format or code to other format or code.


A decoder is a multiple-output, multiple-input logic circuit which converts coded inputs into coded outputs, in which the input and output codes are dissimilar.


A multiplexer or also termed as mux is a device which performs multiplexing; it choose one from the several analog or digital input signals and forwards the input that is selected into a single line. A multiplexer of 2n inputs contain n select lines, that are employed to choose which input line to send to the output to share one resource or device, for instance one A/D converter or one communication line, in its place of containing one device per input signal.

Alternatively on the other end, a demultiplexer or demux is a device which is taking a single input signal and selecting one from several data-output-lines that is connected to the single input. A multiplexer is frequently employed with a complementary demultiplexer on the receiving end.

An electronic multiplexer may be referred like a multiple-input, single-output switch and a demultiplexer like a single-input, multiple-output switch. The symbol of a multiplexer is an isosceles trapezoid along with the longer parallel side consisting of the input pins and the short parallel side consisting of the output pin. The schematic diagram below depicts a 2-to-1 multiplexer and an equivalent switch in the other diagram. The sel wire links the needed input to the output.

In telecommunications, a multiplexer is a device which combines various input information signals into one output signal that carries various communication channels, through means of a number of multiplex techniques. A demultiplexer is in this situation a device which is taking a single input signal which carries several channels and separates those over multiple output signals.

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Figure: 2 to1 multiplexer

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Figure: A2-to-1 mux

In signal processing and telecommunications, an analog time division multiplexer (TDM) may take various samples of separate analogue signals and merge them into one pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) wide-band analogue signal. On the other hand, a digital TDM multiplexer might merge a limited number of constant bit rate digital data streams into one data stream of a higher data rate, via forming data frames containing one timeslot each channel.

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Figure: Demultiplexer


S      A      B     Z

0      1      1      1

        1      0      1

        0      1      0

        0      0      0

1      1      1      1

        1      0      0

        0      1      1

        0      0      0

This truth table depicts that when S=0 then Z=A but when S=1 then Z=B . A simple realization of this 2-to-1 multiplexer would require 2 AND gates, an OR gate, and a NOT gate.


Demultiplexer receives 1 data input and a number of selection inputs, and they have various outputs. They forward the data input to one of the outputs relies on the values of the selection inputs. Demultiplexers are occasionally suitable for designing general purpose logic, since if the input of demultiplexer is all the times true, the demultiplexer works like a decoder. The meaning of this is that any function of the selection bits can be constructed through logically OR-ring the correct set of outputs.

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Diagram: A single bit 1-to-4 line demultiplexer

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