Data independence is able to be defined as the capacity to change the schema at one level without changing the schema at next higher level. There are two kinds of data Independence. They are:
1. Logical data independence.2. Physical data independence.
Logical data independence is the capacity to alter the conceptual schema without having to change the external schema.
Physical data independence is the capacity to alter the internal schema without changing the conceptual schema.
When not to use a DBMS:
a) Main inhibitors (costs) of utilizing a DBMS:
b) High initial investment as well as possible need for additional hardware.
c) Overhead for providing security, concurrency control, generality, recovery and integrity functions When a DBMS perhaps unnecessary.
d) If the database as well as applications are simple well defined and not expected to change.
e) If there are severe real-time requirements that mayn’t be met for the reason that of DBMS overhead.
f) If access to data by multiple users isn’t required.
When no DBMS may perhaps suffice:
a) If the database system isn’t able to handle the complexity of data because of modelling limitations.
b) If the database users require special operations not supported by the DBMS.
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