Typical sexual reproduction including the formation and fusion of gametes is not present in bacteria. Though, gene recombination can take place in bacteria by three different techniques. They techniques are as follows:
1. Conjugation 2. Transduction 3. Transformation
Figure: Conjugation in Bacteria
In this technique of gene transfer, the donor cell gets joined to the recipient cell with the help of pili. The pilus grows in size and builds the conjugation tube. The plasmid of donor cell that contains F+ (fertility factor) undergoes duplication. Just one strand of DNA is transferred to the recipient cell via conjugation tube. The recipient fulfills the structure of double stranded DNA by synthesizing the strand which complements the strand obtained from the donor.Transduction:
Donor DNA is taken out in a phage coat and is transferred into the recipient by the mechanism employed for phage infection.Transformation:
The direct uptake of donor DNA by the recipient cell might be forced or natural. Relatively some bacterial species are naturally competent for transformation. Such species assimilate donor DNA in linear form. Forced transformation is persuaded in the laboratory, where subsequent to treatment with high salt and temperature shock numerous bacteria are rendered competent for the assimilation of extra-cellular plasmids. The capability to force bacteria to incorporate extra-cellular plasmids by conversion is basic to genetic Engineering.
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