Relationships among Organisms

Relationships among Organisms:

Most of the ecologists are in favor of the utilization of the term symbiosis, that literally means ‘living altogether’, in its broader sense. Odum in1971 utilized the word ‘symbiosis’ in its wider sense and preferred to group all the kinds of symbiotic interactions into two main groups. These are:

1. Positive Interactions:

A kind of interaction, where populations aid one another, the interaction being either one-way or reciprocal. Their advantage might be in respect of food, substratum, transport, shelter, and so on. These comprise:

(i) Commensalisms
(ii) Protocooperation
(iii) Mutualism

2. Negative Interactions:

Where members of one population might live at the expenditure of members of the other population compete for foods, excrete harmful wastes, and so on. These comprise:

(a) Competition
(b) Predation
(c) Parasitism
(d) Antibiosis

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