Prokaryotes

Prokaryotes:

In common, Prokaryotes consist of a single closed compartment having cytosol and bounded by the plasma membrane. Though bacterial cells do not contain well stated nucleus, the genetic material, DNA, is condensed into central area of the cell. In all prokaryotic cells, most of or every genetic information resides in a single circular DNA molecule, in central area of the cell. This area is often termed to as incipient nucleus or nucleoid. Additionally, most ribosomes, the cell’s protein synthesizing centres are found in the DNA free area of the cell. Several bacteria also contain invagination of the cell membrane termed as mesosome that is related with synthesis of DNA and secretion of proteins. Therefore we can’t say that bacterial cells are totally devoid of internal organization.

Bacterial cells hold a cell wall that lies adjacent to the external side of the plasma membrane. Cell wall is composed of layers of peptidoglycan, a complex of oligosaccharides and proteins. This protects the cell and sustains its shape.

Certain bacteria (example E.coli) have a thin cell wall and an odd outer membrane separated from the cell wall by periplasmic space. These bacteria are not stained by Gram staining method and therefore are categorized as Gram-negative bacteria. Other bacteria (example Bacillus polymyxa) which have a thicker cell wall without an outer membrane take the Gram stain and therefore are categorized as Gram positive bacteria.

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