Mitosis classification

Mitosis classification:

Mitosis is classified into the following sub phases:

Prophase:

The chromatin network starts to coil and each chromosome becomes different as long thread like structure. All chromosomes at this phase have two chromatids which lie side by side and held jointly by centromere. The nucleus steadily disappears. The nuclear membrane also begins disappearing.

Metaphase:

The disappearance of nucleolus marks and nuclear membrane is the starting of metaphase. Chromosomes become shorter by extra coiling. Lastly, the chromosomes become dissimilar and visible beneath the compound microscope. The chromosomes orient themselves in the equator of the cell in such a manner that all the centromeres are arranged in an equator forming metaphase or equatorial plate. Out of the two chromatids of each chromosome, one faces one pole and the other faces the opposite pole. At similar time spindle fibers occurring from the opposite poles are seen joined to the centromeres. The fibers are built up of proteins rich in sulphur having amino acids.

At late metaphase, the centromeres split and now the chromatids of each and every chromosome are prepared to be separated.

Anaphase:

The division of centromere marks the starting of anaphase. The spindle fibers begin contracting and this contraction pulls the two classes of chromosomes towards the opposite poles. Since the chromosomes move toward opposite poles they suppose V or J or I shaped configuration with centromere proceeding towards the poles with chromosome arms trailing behind. These variable shapes of the chromosomes are due to the variable location of centromere.

Telophase:

At the end of anaphase, the chromosomes reach the opposite poles and they uncoil, lengthen and become thin and unseen. The nuclear membrane and the nucleolus recur. Therefore, two daughter nuclei are build up, one at each pole.

Cytokinesis:

The division of the cytoplasm is termed as cytokinesis and it follows the nuclear division by the creation of cell wall among the two daughter nuclei.  The formation of cell wall starts as a cell plate also termed as phragmoplast formed by the aggregation of vesicles generated by Golgi bodies. Such vesicles that include cell wall materials fuse with one another to form cell membranes and cell walls. Therefore, at the end of mitosis, two similar daughter cells are formed.

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