Germination of Seed

Germination of Seed:

Seed is a ripened ovule that has the embryo or the miniature of plant body. Seeds of distinct plants differ in their shape and size. Though, the general plan of structural organization of seed remains almost similar.

Part of a seed:

Each seed has an outer covering termed as seed coat. It develops from the integuments of the ovule. Outer coat is termed as testa and the inner layer is termed as tegmen. When only one covering is existed in the seed, it is termed as testa. The testa is leathery and hard while tegmen is membranous and thin. Sometimes tegmen stays fused with the testa. The outer surface of seed exhibits a scar or mark of attachment with the seed stalk. This is termed as hilum. There is a small pore, termed as micropyle that symbolizes the micropyle of ovule. Several seeds also exhibit the place of origin of seed coats (chalaza) and the portion of funiculus fused with seed wall (i.e., raphe).

The seed coat surrounds an embryo that is differentiated into plumule, cotyledons, and radicle. The radicle, whenever elongated, gives mount to primary root while the plumule gives mount to aerial shoot.

The number of cotyledons or seed leaves might be one as in monocotyledons or two as in dicotledons. Sometimes, they store reserve food stuff example: Almond, Gram, Pea, Cashew nut, and so on or serve as photosynthetic organs in young seedling. The portion of embryonic axis among the radicle and the point of attachment of cotyledons are termed as hydocotyl. Likewise, the portion of embryonic axis among the plumule and the point of the attachment of cotyledons are termed as epicotyl.

Illustration for Dicot seed is Bean, Cicer, Tramarind and so on.

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 Figure: Structure of Dicot seed

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