Functions of plasma membrane:
In each and every cell the plasma membrane has several necessary functions to execute. These involve transporting nutrients into and metabolic wastes out of the cell avoiding unwanted materials from entering the cell. In brief, the intercellular and intra cellular transport is regulated by the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane sustains the proper ionic composition pH (~7.2) and osmotic pressure of cytosol. To fetch out all such functions, the plasma membrane comprises specific transport proteins which allow the passage of certain small molecule however not others. Some of these proteins utilize the energy liberated by ATP hydrolysis to pump ions and other molecules into or out of the cell alongside concentration gradients. Small charged molecules like ATP and amino acids can diffuse freely in the cytosol however are restricted in their capability to leave or enter it across the plasma membrane.
In addition to such universal function, the plasma membrane has other significant functions to execute. Enzymes bound to the plasma membrane catalyze reactions which would take place with complexity in an aqueous atmosphere. The plasma membranes of many kinds of eukaryotic cells also enclose receptor proteins which bind specific signaling molecules similar to growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters and so on leading to different cellular responses.
Similar to the entire cell, each organelle in eukaryotic cells is surrounded by a unit membrane having a unique set of proteins necessary for its appropriate functioning.
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