Bryophytes

Bryophytes:

There are fossil proofs of blue green algae i.e., Cyanobacteria living 3000 million years ago and most of the eukaryotic organisms present for more than 1000 million years. Though the initial organisms to colonize the land, primitive plants did so just 420 million years ago. The greatest simple trouble to overcome in making the transition from water to land is that of drought. Any plant not protected in some manner, for illustration, by a waxy cuticle, will tend to dry out and die very quickly.

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 Figure: Graphical symbolization of life cycle of Bryophyte

Salient features of Bryophyta:

Bryophyta are the simplest class of land plants. They are relatively poorly adapted to life on land, so they are mostly confined to damp, shady areas. These are terrestrial non-vascular plants (that is, no vascular tissue viz., xylem and phloem) that still need moist environment to complete their life-cycle. Therefore these are termed as amphibians of plant kingdom. They are more superior to algae in that they develop special organs. The male sex organ is termed as antheridium and the female sex organ is termed as archegonium. Bryophytes exhibit distinct alternation of generation in their life cycles. Bryophytes comprise mosses, hornworts and liverworts.

 

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