Regulatory Systems and Mechanisms in Animals, Biology tutorial


Living organisms are made up of cells that are embedded in the body fluids. Body fluids comprise blood, lymph and tissue (inter-cellular) fluids. Such fluids form the internal atmosphere of organisms, which should be kept fairly constant when proper growth, health and proficient performance of the cells are to be accomplished. Maintenance of constant internal atmosphere is termed as Homeostasis.

Homeostasis process:

The atmosphere of an organism is a comprehensive of all physical, chemical and biotic conditions, beneath which it exists. The internal atmosphere is made up of conditions formed within of an organism, by virtue of its metabolism and reactions to exterior changes and behavior. The organism is faced by the problem of fluctuation and for this cause; the inside of an organism has to be in the state of homeostasis or constant condition, maintained through particular regulatory processes. Such processes comprise the maintenance of a constant body temperature and Osmoregulation in animals. Therefore, the maintenance of a constant internal atmosphere despite of changing exterior conditions is homeostasis.

Homeostatic process:

A homeostatic process is the property of a system, either closed or open, which regulates its internal environment and tends to sustain a stable, constant condition. For illustration: the hypothalamus (that is a homeostatic process) senses if your body's temperature is too low or too high. In a condition where the temperature of your body is over normal, the hypothalamus senses a change which requires to be made in order to reverse the heating of the area and decrease the amount of blood which is sent to the location. In turn, this action will cool the body and return it to the normal temperature in which it must be maintained.

Regulation of Body Temperature:

Mammals and birds and regulate body temperature and are thus, thermostatically stated to be homoithermic (warm-blooded) whereas other animal groups encompass their body temperature varying with that of atmosphere and are stated to be poikilothermic (cold blooded).

Homoiothermic animals can control temperature in two manners, firstly, by the regulation of quantity of heat generated in the body and control of heat loss from the body. Secondly, via changes in the environmental temperature-sensitive centre of the brain, that afterward triggers methods of homeostasis. Heat released in the body is via respiratory actions. Respiratory action in the presence of adequate substrate and oxygen is controlled through hormones like insulin, thyroxin, adrenalin glucocorticoids, glucagon and somatotrophin. Such hormones control heat generation beneath various conditions.

Regulation of Muscular Movement:

There are mainly three kinds of muscles: these are cardiac, voluntary (striated or skeletal) and involuntary (unstraited or visceral). Voluntary or skeletal muscles, apart from the tongue, are joined to skeleton by tendons.

Among the muscle fibers are the sensory organs whose nerve endings are susceptible to the degree of contraction of fibers. Sensory organs send impulses to the brain. In brain, the impulses are coordinated and responses are relayed via motor nerves to the muscles fibers. At end plates, acetylcholine is liberated to depolarize the membrane of the muscle fibers. This raises permeability to the ions. The action potential is started and the muscle fiber contracts.

Regulation of Hormone Production:

The hypothalamus of the brain controls or manages most of the endocrine system. It consists of nervous connections to all portions of the brain and thus, receives each and every information of internal and external origin. Hypothalamus responses by sending long autonomic nerves to target areas by secretion of hormones into the pituitary body (Neurosecretion) and by sending releasing factors that stimulate the pituitary to the secrete hormones.

Neurosecretion takes place via neurons whose axons pass via the pituitary stalk into the pars nervosa and end in small swellings. Droplets of hormones pass all along the axon. Significant hormones secreted this way comprise vasopressin and oxytocin. Vasopressin causes increase in blood pressure and consists of an antidiuretic effect too. Oxytocin causes contraction of the uterine wall throughout child birth and contraction of mammary alveoli to force milk out of the nipple.

Pars anterior generate around six hormones that are transported to the pituitary body via the hypothalamus hypophygial portal system.

The other hormones from the pituitary comprise somatotropin that is a growth hormone, thyrotropic hormone which stimulates the thyroid to discharge thyroxin; the adrenocorticotropic hormone which stimulates the discharge of corticoid hormones and the gonadotropic hormone from pars anterior that stimulates sex organs to liberate the proper sex hormones.

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