Nematodes, Biology tutorial

Introduction of Nematodes:

Nematodes have productively adapted to almost every ecology from Polar Regions to tropics, from aquatic to fresh water, to land, and highest to lowest of height. They are everywhere in marine, terrestrial surroundings and freshwater, where they frequently outnumber animals in equally entity and species counts, and are discovered in situations as different as mountains, oceanic trenches and deserts. They are discovered in every part of earth's lithosphere. They symbolize, for instance, ninety percent of every life variety on ocean floor. Nematodes have discovered at large depth (0.9-3.6 km) below surface of Earth in gold mines in South Africa.

General Characteristics of Nematodes:  

Roundworms are threadlike in form. They have chitenous external coat. Digestive canal is open at both ends. This states that there is mouth and anus. Round worms are triploblastic, bilaterally proportioned, lengthened at both ends even though there is some degea of head development. They are not segmented. Sexes are separate. There few free living ones. Their major diagnostic characteristic is that roundworms are lengthened at both ends (have pointed ends). There is little free living variety in soil. There are also parasitic species. Due to their chitinous coat and eggs, they survive digestive enzymes of the hosts. Every species of roundworm is adapted to living in one or many specific host and has evolved complicated life cycle of larval and adult stages which allows it to do well in the particular host. They are liable for the diversity of parasitic infestations comprising hookworm, trichinosis and guinea worm. They all cause disease and are of significance to man. Roundworms are badly developed for locomotion and a parasitic mode doesn't motivate much movement.

Nematodes have the layer of skin epidermis which covers the bodies. Dissimilar human skin that is composed of cells, roundworm's epidermis is composed of collections of undifferentiated cellular material. The skin layer frees cuticle which forms the coating over skin, giving extra protection for body in remaining flexible adequate to permit for worm's side-to-side movements. Cuticle is not what stops nematodes from crawling or shifting themselves up. In its place, the roundworm's movement is restricted as muscles below skin are located longitudinally, stopping anything but side-to-side movement.

Nematodes are frequently puzzled with flatworms due to their resemblances in physical appearance. Though, nematodes contain thread-like, cylindrical bodies. Their bodies are non-segmented, distinct from earthworms. Nematodes are bilaterally proportioned, means both halves of the bodies are equal.

Ascaris:

Structure:

It is the typical roundworm or nematode. It is pink or white in color. It is pointed at both ends. They sexes are separate and similar to each other except that male is typically curled at later end. Ascaris lumbricoides is huge roundworm of humans, increasing to the length of up to given 35 cm. It is one of many species of Ascaris. The ascarid nematode of phylum Nematoda, it is largest and common parasitic worm in humans. This organism is liable for disease like ascariasis, a kind of helminthiasis and one of group of ignored tropical diseases. The evaluated one-sixth of human population is infected by A. lumbricoides or a different roundworm. Ascariasis is prevalent international, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries.

Life Cycle:

The fertilized egg passes out with faeces of host. They are extremely opposing and live for years in polluted conditions. They discover their way back into alimentary canal of another organic host. In stomach of new host eggs hatch in small larvae that bore through wall of intestine into blood stream. In blood they pass through liver, heart, lungs and back at last to intestine through wind pipe, gut and stomach. Back in intestine they develop in adult forms and start to lay eggs again. As adult is lastingly in nutrition of its host, it has not requirement for adaptive characteristics except the egg producing mechanism. Up to 100 million eggs can be made in life time of nematode. They cause loss of appetite, weakness and lack of concern in work. In children they hinder development.

Nematode Survival Strategies:

The nematode should compete with big predators, variation in soil temperature and moisture, and death of host plant. For the nematode population to stay alive, it should be able to avoid the obstacles. Nematodes avoid the biotic and abiotic obstacles by using the combination of behavioral and physiological survival policies.

As all nematodes feed on other organisms, soil is packed with fungi, bacteria and other nematodes which would willingly consume the nutrient-rich plant-parasitic nematode. Actually, study of nematode predators and pathogens is significant area of study in nematology as nematode predators can be utilized (in theory) to manage populations of plant-parasitic nematodes. As nematodes do have the thick cuticle which may give some protection from predation, this kind of defense is simply violated by specialized nematode pathogens. The most common method plant nematodes employ to avoid predation is by living within plant tissue or by restricting the mobility in soil environment. By spending less time moving in soil, the nematode can decrease its probability of running into the predator or pathogen. Few plant nematodes spend most of the time in soil (ectoparasites) and others are generally contained within plant tissue (endoparasites). Nematodes which live inside plants contain some degree of protection from predation, but they danger death if the host plant yields to disease. On the contrary, nematodes which move from host to host decrease risk of perishing with the host, but have greater possibility of encountering the predator or pathogen.

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