Mosses, Biology tutorial

Introduction:

Mosses come into the division of Bryophyta and the class, musci.  Mosses are land plants that grow on moist ground beneath the shade of big trees as epiphytes; on packed soggy blocks and, or old block walls and rocks.  Funaria (a general moss species) grows in turfs to make a green carpet. At times, relatively extensive regions might be fully covered by it, specifically the sites of old beacons in woodlands. The moss is often capable to colonize such burnt patches really fast. This is a sign of its measure of achievement as a land plant. Mosses be deficient in true roots, leaves and stems; they are parenchymatous (that is, they contain parenchyma tissues), they be deficient in vascular tissue.

General features of Mosses:

A) Mosses grow up on moist brick walls, in side-walks, as thick mats on forest floors and on the shaded surface of trees. A few of them are adapted to Desert or can live periodic dry spells, reviving while water becomes accessible.

B) All mosses require water to complete their life-cycle.

C) Mosses share some features other than bryophytes:

  • They don't encompass complex Vascular Systems.
  • Water passes from cell to cell through osmosis. They are just a few cells thick.
  • They don't include true Roots, Leaves and Stems.
  • They necessitate Water for Fertilization.
  • They are very small land plants.

Classification of Mosses:

Two distinct kinds of mosses (and lichen, in the smallest box) surround the tree trunk.

The mosses are combined as a single division, now termed as Bryophyta and in general classified into six classes:

  • Takakiopsida
  • Sphagnopsida
  • Andreaeopsida
  • Andreaeobryopsida
  • Polytrichopsida
  • Bryopsida

Reproduction in Moss:

The moss plant for example: Funaria bears separate male and female parts at maturity, biciliate spermatozoa (named antherozoids) and big ovoid eggs are made at the top of the plants. Reproduction occurs in the rainy season as male gametes swim in water to the archegonium (that is, multi-cellular structure in which an egg is formed, a female gametangium).

The antherozoids that is, the male gametes are released by the male plants after rainfall if water covers the top of the plants growing in the turfts. Antherozoids (male gametes) swim in water into the archegonium on the female plant in the tufts. One antherozoid fuses with one egg in the archegonium of the top of the female plant. A zygote is made on the top of the female plant. The, zygote builds up into a sporogonium that comprises the sporophytic generation. This is the spore-producing structure that is somewhat dependent on the gamete generating structure for its sustenance. The bryophytes (moss and liverworts) encompass two stages in their life history:

1) The gametophyte stage which reproduces sexually through gametes and

2) The sporophyte stage which reproduces asexually through spores.

This phenomenon is termed as the Alternation of Generations.

Economic significance of Mosses:

The economic significance of Mosses is as follows:

1) Mosses grow and reproduce quickly on a favorable substrate and beneath favorable ecological conditions. As they die and decay, they form appropriate humus on which other higher plants can grow. They, thus, form an essential step in the natural procedure of environmental succession which might lead to climax vegetation.

2) The bog and peat moss (that is, sphagnum) in reality comprises of a mixture of plants of which the sphagnum make the dominant vegetation. The plant colonizes an acid atmosphere. The plant, itself, consists of antiseptic properties for which reason it doesn't decay fast. Therefore, the plant debris accumulates as 'peat'.

Peat is frequently dried and employed as fuel. It is as well helpful in agriculture because of its water-holding ability for which it is often combined with sandy or humus-poor soils.

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