General Classification of Fungi, Biology tutorial

Introduction:

Living things are categorized into two main groups which are animals and plants. Living things are thus categorized into Kingdoms: Plant Kingdom and Animal Kingdom.

The plant Kingdom is further categorized into two: 

1) Flowering plants 

2) Non - flowering plants

Fungi are groups of eukaryotic organisms which are of great practical and scientific interest to biologist. Fungi encompass a diversity of morphological appearances based on the species. The categorization of Fungi, similar to that of bacteria is designed mostly for practical application however as well bears some relation to the phylogenetic considerations.

General characteristics used in classifying fungi:

On the base of distinctive features or characteristics the nomenclature of fungi, the nomenclature is binomial having a generic and specific name (example: Aspergillus flavus). Species are collected in genera, genera in families (Suffix - Aceae), families in orders (Suffix - ales) and the orders in classes (Suffix - Mycetes). The division of Mycota or Fungi and moulds, comprise the true slime moulds (Myxomycetes), the lower fungi (Phycomycetes) and the higher fungi (Eumycetes).

Fungi have been categorized in a number of manners. This earlier categorization is otherwise termed as primitive categorization such criteria employed are:

1) Habitat: Principally, the habitat has been employed as a means of categorization of fungi example: aquatic, terrestrial and atmospheric fungi. A number of fungi of various features might be found in different habitats; thus the use of habitat is not scientific and therefore not authentic.

In the atmosphere, propagoles of fungi, such terrestrial and those on trees can be disseminated into the atmosphere that is, conidia and spores, therefore the use of atmosphere is disgustingly insufficient.

2) Structure:   The somatic structure or vegetative portions might be employed as a means of categorization.

3) Types of Hyphae: The aseptate hyphae (or Coenocytic) have been employed as a means of categorization particularly in the lower fungi positioned in Phycomycetes. When the Hyphal is septate such a fungus fits in to the higher fungi and is therefore categorized on that basis. For illustration: fungi having ordinary septate hyphae fit in to Ascomycetes. If the hyphae are categorized into a number of clamp connections, the fungi fit in to Basidiomycetes.

4) Spores: The kinds of spores used in/for reproduction were as well employed in the categorization. If the spores are motile by means of flagella, they are termed as zoosporic whereas those having conidia are conidial.

5) Fungi with zoospore that encompass single flagella are termed to as haplomastigmycotina and such having two flagella are diplomastigomycotina. Though, such without flagella are amastigomycotina and such in between the flagellate and non-flagellate are sub- mastigomycotina. In the amastigomycotina, a few generates zygotes and are termed to as Zygomycetes. A few fungi carry on produce sac-like structures which serve up as spores containers and are termed as Ascomycetes. They produce spores in the sacs that are borne endogenously.

Spores generated by Basdiomycetes are borne exogenously, generally on the surface of the basidia

6) Taxonomy:  Taxonomy of fungi follows the recommendations of the Committee on the International Rules of Botanical Nomenclature (IRBN). According, the different taxa encompass endings as follows:

DIVISIONS: mycotina

SUBDIVISIONS: mycotina

CLASSES: mycetes

SUB-CLASSES: mycetidae

ORDER: ales

FAMILIES: aceae

Genus and species comprise no standard endings

The organism is assumed to encompass two names, the first being the generic name that is for all time a noun, the first letter of which is generally Capital. The second name is the species name that is generally an adjective which should for all time start with a small letter, underlined separately or should be in italics. An illustration is the fungus Saccharomyces carlbergensis that is a fungus which is capable of degrading carbohydrates and is employed for growing cereals in the order Endomycetales, in sub-class Hemi - Ascomycetidae, in the class Ascomycestes and sub - division - Eumycotina. The other illustration is Auricularia auricularia Judais that is a fungus which looks similar to the ear.

CLASS: Basidiomycetes

SUB-CLASS: Heterobasidiocomycetidae

ORDER: Tremallales (Soft)

FAMILY: Auriccullaricae

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