Reactions of the citric acid cycle

Reactions of the citric acid cycle:

In the cycle and the reactions there are eight steps. They are as follows:

1. Formation of citrate:
The cycle’s 1st reaction is the condensation of acetyl CoA along with oxaloacetate to create citrate, catalyzed via citrate synthase. This is a fixed reaction.

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2. Formation of isocitrate via cis aconitate:
The enzyme aconitase catalyzes the citrate’s reversible transformation to isocitrate, by the intermediary creation of cis aconitate.

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 3. Oxidation of isocitrate to a-ketoglutarate and CO2
In the subsequently step, isocitrate dehydrogenase catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to make -ketoglutarate.

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 4. Oxidation of α-keto glutarate to succinyl COA and CO2:
The next step is other oxidative decarboxylation, where α-ketoglutarate is transformed to succinyl COA and CO2 via the action of α -ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. The reaction is cannot be reversible.

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5. Conversion of succinyl COA to succinate:
The product of the previous step, succinyl COA is converted to succinate to carry on the cycle. GTP is created in this step (substrate level phosphorylation).
The enzyme that catalyzes this reversible reaction is called succinyl CoA synthetase or succinic thiokinase.

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6. Oxidation of succinate to fumarate:
The succinate created from succinyl CoA is oxidized to fumarate via the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase

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7. Hydration of fumarate to malate:
The reversible hydration of fumarate to malate is catalyzed via fumarase.

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8. Oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate:
The final reaction of the citric acid cycle is, NAD linked malate - dehydrogenase that catalyses the oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate.

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