Our understanding of genetic inheritance and the function

Minimum 1200 word essay on the following question and outline. 

Our understanding of genetic inheritance and the function of DNA in producing the characteristics of the individual have been developing for more than 150 years. Consider our current state of knowledge. Link genetic characteristics to DNA structure. Explain how DNA through the process of protein synthesis is responsible for the ultimate expression of the characteristics in the organism. Describe how interference in protein synthesis can result in disruption of cellular and bodily processes? How does the significance of one class of proteins, the enzymes, relate to the importance of proper nutrition throughout life? 

1. Introduction 
i. Mendel's principles 
ii. Synthesis of principles of genetics with natural selection and biological evolution 
iii. Function of DNA and its 3D structure 
iv. Protein Synthesis 
2. Structure of DNA 
a. The Double Helix 
b. Deoxyribose backbone 
c. Paired bases 
d. Three base structure of the codon/universal genetic code 
3. Protein Synthesis 
a. Transcription 
i. Unzipping of DNA and role of RNA polymerase 
ii. Splicing of mRNA 
iii. Migration from nucleus into cytoplasm 
b. Translation 
i. mRNA function 
ii. rRNA Function 
iii. tRNA function 
1. amino acids and codons, universal genetic code. 
2. structures of proteins 
a. Problems with enzymes 
b. Faulty or missing proteins in development and survival 
c. mutation and faulty proteins like sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, color blindness and others. 

d. missense mutation, nonsense mutation and truncated proteins. 
Conclusion & References

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