Techniques of Scientific Management
Time Study : Time study is the technique used to measure the time that may be taken by workman of reasonable skill and ability to perform various elements of the tasks in a job. In time study a worker of reasonable skill and ability is selected. Then a person watches him and with the help of stop watch notes the time spent on different activities. It helps in deciding how much time is normally required to perform a certain job.
Motion study: This is a technique which involves close observation of the m movements of the body and limbs required to perform a job. The purpose of motion study is to avoid wasteful motions and determine the best way of doing a job.
Standardization : If refers to the methods of selecting standard tools and equipment for use by workers as well as of maintaining standard working conditions with respect to lighting ventilations, etc. at the workplace. Tools and equipment must conform to quality standards without which operating workmanship is bound to suffer. At the same time working conditions need to be congenial for efficient performance of jobs.
Functional foremanship: To improve the quality of supervision of workers Taylor developed the idea of functional foremanship. In this a worker is supervised by several specialist foramens. For example matters relating to speed of work are looked after by the foreman called speed boss breakdowns and repairs are supervised by the repair boss who is specialized in repairs and so on. Taylor identified different types of functional foremen. He believed that a single Forman may not be competent to supervise all functional matters. Each worker should be supervised by specialists.
Differential piece rate plan: This is a method of wage payment in which efficient and inefficient workers are paid at different rates. The efficient workers are paid at a higher rate than the inefficient ones. Workers are paid on the basis of number of pieces produced. If a worker produces more than a certain number of pieces he is given a higher per piece on his total output. But of his output is below the number he is given lower rate per piece. Due to different rates for different sets of workers, it is known as differential piece rate plan.
The other techniques: Use of instruction cards for workmen, slide rules, graphs, charts etc., are also included in the tools required by management in planning and standardizing the tasks.