Problems of vertebrates

State the problems that vertebrates are required to elucidate to adapt to terrestrial environment as they came from aquatic habitat? How these evolution does solve those problems?

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Main problems vertebrates coming from water is required to solve to adapt to the terrestrial environment were following: Problem of elimination of wastes in the medium where water is less available; problem to prevent the dehydration; the problem of protection from the nocent solar radiation; the problem of gamete locomotion within the environment for fecundation; problem of the gas exchange, previously done by direct contact of water with gills; problem of body support, as it was water which played this role in the fishes. Solutions for dehydration problem: thicker and impermeable skin, or moist and permeable skin, to lose less water, like in amphibians. Solution for the excretion problem: excretion of urea (also excreted by chondrichthyes) or uric acid, substances which need less water to be dissolved. Solutions for the problem of protection from radiation: feathers, skin pigments which filter harmful radiation, hair or carapaces. Solution for gamete movement problem: internal fecundation. Solution for gas exchange problem: occurs of airways and lungs. Solution for body support problem: more development of the muscular and bony structures, such as claws and limbs.

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