Problems of vertebrates

State the problems that vertebrates are required to elucidate to adapt to terrestrial environment as they came from aquatic habitat? How these evolution does solve those problems?




Main problems vertebrates coming from water is required to solve to adapt to the terrestrial environment were following: Problem of elimination of wastes in the medium where water is less available; problem to prevent the dehydration; the problem of protection from the nocent solar radiation; the problem of gamete locomotion within the environment for fecundation; problem of the gas exchange, previously done by direct contact of water with gills; problem of body support, as it was water which played this role in the fishes. Solutions for dehydration problem: thicker and impermeable skin, or moist and permeable skin, to lose less water, like in amphibians. Solution for the excretion problem: excretion of urea (also excreted by chondrichthyes) or uric acid, substances which need less water to be dissolved. Solutions for the problem of protection from radiation: feathers, skin pigments which filter harmful radiation, hair or carapaces. Solution for gamete movement problem: internal fecundation. Solution for gas exchange problem: occurs of airways and lungs. Solution for body support problem: more development of the muscular and bony structures, such as claws and limbs.

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