Elements of scientific management
The main elements of scientific management are : i) work study involving work measurement and work improvement through scientifically conducted time and motion studies, methods studies and fatigue studies; ii) Standardization lf tools and equipment for workmen, machine speeds and working sanctions, and iii) Scientific selection, placement and training of workers by a centralized personnel department.
Bilateral mental revolution: Scientific management involves a complete mental revolution on the part of the workingmen engaged in any p0articular establishment or industry a complete mental revolution on the part of these men as to their duties toward their work toward their fellow men and toward their employers. And it involves the equally complete mental revolution on the part of those on the management side the Forman the superintendent, the owner of the business the board of directors a complete mental revolution on their part as to their duties toward their fellow workers in the management, toward their workmen and toward all of their daily problems. And without this complete mental revolution. On both sides scientific management does not exist.
Financial incentives : In order to motivate the workers for greater and better work Taylor introduced the differential piece rate system. According to Taylor, the wage should be based on individual performance and on the position which a worker occupies. The rate should be fixed on accurate knowledge and not on estimates.
Economy: While applying scientific management not only scientific and technical aspects should be considered but adequate consideration should be given to profit and economy. For this purpose techniques of cost estimates and control should be adopted.
Mechanism of management: Taylor warned against confusing the mechanisms of management with the philosophy of scientific management. He listed the following as some of mechanisms: i) Time study, ii) Functional foremanship, iii) Standardization of tools and implements, iv) The desirability of a planning room, v) Instruction cards for the workman, vi) The differential rate, vii) Arousing system, viii) Modern cost system, etc.