Behavioral theory of the leadership
The initiating structure, which refers to leader Employee centered : in the employee central oriented , the leader developing the open relation with the employee and is very sensitive to their personal needs and their social needs Job centered : a job centre orientation is one in which the leader getting a job done by planning , organization or a delegating or making a decision , evaluating a performance and exercising close management control. Consideration refers to leader behavior that can be characterized by friendliness, respect, supportiveness, openness, trusty and concern for the welfare of the employees.
The main point in the study is that both consideration and initiating structure are not seen as being placed on a continuum. That's, rather than a leader necessarily being low on one dimension when high on the other, the leader could be high on both, low on both, or high on one and low on the other as seen in the quadrants shown in fig. below. The findings of the Ohio State studies can be summarized Consideration was positively related to low absenteeism and grievance, but it was negatively or neutrally related to performance. Initiating structure was positively related to employee performance but was also associated with such negative consequences as absenteeism and grievances. When both consideration and structure were high, performance and satisfaction tended to be high. But in some cases, high productivity was accompanied by absenteeism and grievances. The Managerial Grid: The concept of managerial grid was created by robin son they emphasized that leadership style consists of facts on both task oriented and relation oriented behavior in varying degrees. They have used two phrases.
Concern for production: Concern for production means the attitude of the superiors towards a variety of factors concerning production, such as products, procedures, processed, quality of staff service, work load, efficiency and quantity of production.
Concern for people: Concern for people includes degree of personal commitment towards goal achievement, maintaining the self esteem of workers, responsibility and conductibility based on trust rather than on force and satisfying inter-personal relations.