External Factors

External Factors:

These comprise conditions of the environment that affect the rate of transpiration. The external factors are wind, humidity, atmospheric pressure, temperature, light and water.

Humidity:

Humidity refers to the quantity of water vapor existed in the atmosphere. When humidity is high, rate of evaporation is low and therefore the rate of transpiration is slow.

Wind:

Wind is air in motion that improves the rate of evaporation. Wind raises the rate of transpiration. However winds at high velocity bring around closure of stomata and therefore decrease the transpiration rate.

Atmospheric Pressure:

Low atmospheric pressure raises the rate of transpiration. Water vapor from transpiring surfaces quickly moves into the atmosphere that is at low pressure.

Temperature:

Rise in temperature raises the rate of transpiration as high temperature causes the water in intercellular spaces to vaporize at a faster rate.

Light:

Light influences opening of stomata and therefore rate of transpiration is high in light and low in darkness.

Water:

Less amount of soil water reduces the rate of transpiration. When the rate of transpiration exceeds the rate of absorption, the stomata get closed the cells lose their turgidity and the plant wilts. When the plant recovers the turgidity, it will recover its original position and this is termed as incipient wilting. When the wilting is irreversible it is termed as permanent wilting.

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