Climatic Factors:A) Light:
Light is a factor of huge physiological importance. It affects growth, structure, and activities of organisms
Sunlight is the main source of energy for all organisms. Light is necessary for photosynthesis, a procedure by which green plants synthesize their food on which the rest of living world depends.
Development of photosynthetic pigments, pigments for floral color, red-far red absorbing phytochrome pigments that regulate morphogenetic procedures, induction and regulation of numerous enzymes are all light regulated procedures. “Photoperiod” is a significant factor in the flowering of plants.B) Temperature:
Most of the living organisms can survive only in a narrow variety of temperature (50 to 350C). Though, there are notable exceptions to it. Some bacteria, cyanobacteria (i.e., blue green algae), spores, seeds, and encysted protozoans can take place in hot springs or in very low temperature. Most of the organisms have developed physiological and behavioural adaptations to avoid severe of temperature.
Temperature differs in various quarters of the earth according to latitude and altitude. This is also influenced by the water reservoirs, plant cover, atmospheric humidity, air current and snow. According to the modification of temperature with the augment of latitude, different vegetation zone have been acknowledged. Likewise, on the basis of change in temperature due to altitude, numerous vegetation zones can be noticed.C) Water:
Water is a necessary requirement of life. No life can subsist without water. The protoplasm of the cell contains 80 to 90 percent of water. The need of water differs from organism to organism. The distribution of organisms based on the extent of the requirement and special adaptations for conserving water. Plants of dry region are termed as xerophytes. They develop changes to raise water absorption, decrease transpiration and store absorbed water.
Plants of aquatic habitats are termed as hydrophytes. They hold aerenchyma (air having parenchyma) to support themselves in water. The depth, clarity, salt content, and water currents determine the distribution and growth of plants in water.D) Air:
Air currents determine the weather circumstances and too affect living organisms, particularly the plants. Wind aids in pollination and dispersal of seeds and fruits of many plants. This increases transpiration that might lead to the desiccation and wilting of numerous plants. Strong winds uproot the plants and cause lodging (i.e., flattening of plants on the ground) of numerous crops. Regions frequented by unidirectional winds develop flag trees that contain branches on one side only. Persistent strong winds limit the height of plants due to extreme loss of water by transpiration. The plants of such regions generally possess strong spreading roots and strong however flexible shoots.
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