Morphology and Anatomy of Seed Plant, Biology tutorial

Anatomy of seed plants:

Plant anatomy is basically the study of plant cells and tissues in order to learn more on the way these organisms are made up and how they work. Such studies are very vital as they lead to a better comprehending of how to care for plants and fight plant diseases. Plant anatomy is as well termed as phytotomy.

The Life Span of a Plant:

Plant species differ not just in appearance, however as well in their longevity (that is, length of life). Annual flowering plants just live for 1-year while biennial plants live for 2-years, producing only leaves in the first year and flowering in the next. Perennial plants live for more than 2-years. They may be evergreen (that is, never losing their leaves) or deciduous (that is, loses the leaves in autumn).

All plants comprise of some fundamental parts as follows.

The Flower:

Not all the plants flower however most of the plants from which necessary oils are extracted from are flowering plants; for illustration: lavender, rose and rosemary,

The flower of a plant is a complex structure. Below are the different parts that make up the flower of a plant:

  • the petals (build up of the corolla)
  • the calyx (that is, the outer, or green, leaves)
  • the stamen (having the pollen that birds and insects are fascinated to)
  • the pistil (having the ovary, the style and the stigma of flower)

The Fruits and Seeds:

The seed of a plant includes the nucleus; a new plant grows from the seed as long as the growing conditions are correct for it to do so. Plants as well contain fruits that might be illustrated in one of the given ways:

Follicule, legume (pod), drupe, achenium, caryopsis, cremocarp, nut, berry, samara, pome, pepo, silique, capsule or cone.

Plants which have fruits from which necessary oil is extracted comprise lemon (that is, Citrus Limon) and sweet orange (that is, Citrus sinensis).

The Leaves:

The leaves grow on the portion of the stalk termed as the petiole. Leaves might be short, long, fat, thin, curvy, hairy, indented, and wispy or any number of other shapes, textures and colors. The different types of leaves on a plant are botanically recognized as follows:

Lanceolate, Cuneiform, Sagittate, Ovate, Cordate, Pinnate, Pectinate, Runcinate, Lyrate, Palmate, Pedate, Obovate, Reniform, Hastate, Serrate, Peltate, Dentate, Crenate or Sinuate.

Plants which produce leaf necessary oil comprise cinnamon and petitgrain.

The Stem:

Stems are found on all the flowering plants and gravitate towards the air and light, away from the root. A few plants might look like stem less however they really have the stem below ground or the stem is very short. A tree's stem is better identified as the trunk. Herbs contain stems that die after flowering. Necessary oils are extracted from all of such kinds of plants.

Clove generates stem necessary oil, however clove bud is forever the more preferable necessary oil for aromatherapists to employ as it is much less irritant to the skin.

The Roots:

The root of a plant is generally positioned in the soil beneath the plant. It acts as an anchor for the plant. Kinds of roots comprise:

Fusiform root: The root tapers both up and down, for illustration: radish (Rhapanus sativus).

Fasciculated root: the branches or fibers are thickened.

Tuberiferous root: A few of the branches of the root become rounded knobs, such as in a potato.

Aerial root: The root in reality grows into the open air, like in Indian corn.

Rhizome root: Thick, spreading root like in ginger.

Morphology of seed plants:

Morphology as well known as phytomorphology, the study of the structure and form growth of plants in their individual and evolutionary-historical growth. This is one of the most vital branches of botany. Plant morphology, in the narrow sense, primarily studies the form growth and structure of an organism; though, it as well is concerned with regularities on the population-species level, in as much as it deals by the evolution of form.


The Seed is present in the gymnosperms and angiosperms have been evolved for the survival of new sporophyte (as an organ of the perennation) and dispersion of the species. Its abstraction is being an embryo supplied by food and protected through a seed-coat. The embryo, a new sporophyte, persevered in a dormancy period among adverse conditions and it can bypass at the similar time for long distances from its production site.


Radicle builds up first, it break via the seed-coat and makes the first organ of the plant, the root. The embryonic root grows up into root system that might comprise a main root branching repeatedly (that is, taproot) and/or adventitious roots occurring from the stem (that is, fibrous root system). Roots anchor plant and absorb nutrients and water dissolved in it to transfer them to other organs.


The root system links the aerial portion of the plant axis, the stem that bears the leaves and reproductive organs. Looks and morphology of stem is variable as it consists of quite a few features to point to its particular attributes and accurate to explain its physiognomy. Nodes and internodes build up a developmental and functional unit.


Leaf is usually a flat, green photosynthetic organ on the stem. The leaves grow on the portion of the stalk termed as the petiole. Leaves might be short, long, fat, thin, curvy, hairy, indented, and wispy or any number of other shapes, textures and colors.


Despite of vegetative shoots that photosynthesize and generate organic compounds, flower's main function is the reproduction. According to its definition, flower is a modified dwarf shoot made up from the modified leaves that serve for sexual reproduction. Its growth is ended when gynoecium is started, so no other parts are formed by the reproductive shoot apical meristem subsequent to the formation of pistil.


Seed is present at the angiosperms and gymnosperms. It comprises the new sporophyte. Evolutionarily seed appeared former than the fruit because seeds were produced on the carpels whereas fruit grow up from the pistil that occurs from the fused carpels.

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