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The term Biology simply signifies 'the study of life'. It is such an extensive field, which includes the small workings of chemical machines within our cells to expansive scale theories of ecosystems and overall climate transform. The Biologists study close specifications of the human brain, the composition of our genes and as well the working of our reproductive system. They recently accomplished the decipher of human genome that is, the sequence of DNA bases (deoxyribonucleic acid) which might find out of our inherent abilities and tendencies to certain form of behavior and infirmity.

Science and its scientific procedure:

The science is a logical, objective and replicating effort to comprehend the theories working in the natural universe. The term Science comes from the Latin word 'Scientia' which means 'to know'. One of the optimistic advantages of biology students is that they will become more proverbial with the procedures of science.

Humans for all time seem intrinsically fascinated in the world we live in. Young child compel their parents eccentric with constant 'Why' questions. Science is a resource to get a few of such whys answered.

Steps generally comprised in the scientific procedure:

Observation: Stating the problem you desire to describe.

Hypothesis: One or more falsifiable descriptions for the observation.

Experimentation: Controlled efforts to test one or more hypothesis.

Conclusion: Was the hypothesis sustained or not? Subsequent to this step the hypothesis is either customized or discarded, which causes a do again of the above steps.

Theories which contributes in Modern Biology:

Basically, Modern biology depends on quite a few great ideas or theories:

A) The Cell Theory

B) The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection

C) Gene Theory

D) Homeostasis

Robert Hooke (1635-1703), one of the former scientists to employ a microscope to observe pond water, cork and other things, referred to the cavities he see in the cork as 'cells', means chambers in the Latin. In year 1838, Mattias Schleiden stated that all plant tissues comprised of cells. In year 1839, Theodore Schwann came to an alike conclusion for animal tissues. In 1858, Rudolf Virchow joints the two ideas and stated that all cells come from pre-existing cells, originating the Cell Theory. Therefore there is a chain-of-existence expanded from your cells back to the original cells, over 3.5 billion years ago. The cell theory defines that all the organisms are composed of one or more cells and that such cells have occurred from the pre-existing cells.

In year 1953, British scientist Francis Crick and American scientist James Watson and build up the model for DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), a chemical which had (then) newly been infer to be the physical carrier of the inheritance.

The term Homeostasis is the maintenance of a dynamic array of conditions wherein the organism functions. Energy, temperature and pH are the key components of the concept.

Development of the Evolution theory:

Modern biology is mainly based on some combine themes, like the cell theory, genetics and inheritance, Francis Crick's central dogma of information flow and Darwin and Wallace's theory of evolution by natural selection.

The primeval Greek philosopher Anaxiamander (611-547 B.C.) and the Roman philosopher Lucretius (99-55 B.C.) invent the concept that all the living things were linked and that they had modified over time. The conventional science of their time was observational instead of experimental. The other primeval Greek philosopher, Aristotle build up his Scala Naturae, or Ladder of Life, to describe his concept of the progression of living things from non-living matter to plants, then animals and lastly man.

Post-Aristotelian scientists were confined by the existing thought patterns of the middle Ages -- the inerrancy of the biblical book of Genesis and exceptional formation of the world in a literal six days of 24-hour range. Archbishop James Ussher of Ireland, in the late 1600's computed the age of the earth which is based on genealogies.

Modern observation of the Age of the Earth:

Radiometric age based on the rates of decay of radioactive isotopes, not determined until the late 19th century, propose that the earth is over 4.5 billion years old. The Earth is supposed older than 4.5 billion years, with the oldest identified rocks being 3.96 billion years old. The Geologic time is divided into eons, eroas and smaller units.

Development of the modern observation of Evolution:

Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) grandfather of Charles Darwin is a British physician and poet in the late 1700's, stated that life had changed over time; however he did not present a method. Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788) in the middle to late 1700's stated that species could change. This was a most important break from prior concepts that species were made by a perfect creator and thus couldn't change as they were perfect and so on.

Swedish botanist Carl Linne (also known as Linneus), attempted to pigeon-hole all recognized species of his time (1753) into absolute categories. Linnean hierarchical taxonomy was based on the premise that the species was the smallest unit and that each and every species fit into a higher class.

William Strata Smith (1769-1839), builds up the first precise geologic map of England. He as well, from his widespread travels, builds up the Principle of Biological Succession.

Baron Georges Cuvier and Abraham Gottlob Werner (1769-1832) were among the primary promoters of catastrophism, the theory which the earth and geological events had built up all of a sudden, as an outcome of some big catastrophe (similar to Noah's flood).

Jean Baptiste de Lamarck (1744-1829) proposed one of the initial theories on how species changed. He stated the inheritance of acquired features to describe, among other things, the length of the giraffe neck.

Darwinian evolution:

Charles Darwin, former theology student and former medical student, secured an honorary position as ship's naturalist on the British investigative vessel H.M.S. Beagle. He finally proposed four main points about radical new hypothesis:

A) Adaptation: All the organisms adapt to their surroundings.

B) Variation: All the organisms are changeable in their characteristics.

C) Over-reproduction: All organisms tend to reproduce away from their environment's capability to support them.

D) As not all organisms are uniformly well adapted to their environment, some will stay alive and reproduce enhanced than others -- this is termed as natural selection.

Levels of Organization:

Biosphere: It is stated as the summation of all living things taken in union with their environment. In essence, where life arises, from the upper reach of the atmosphere to some meters of soil, to the bottoms of the seas. The Earth can be divided into:

  • Atmosphere (Air)
  • Lithosphere (Earth)
  • Hydrosphere (Water)
  • Biosphere (Life)

Ecosystem: It is the relationships of smaller groups of organisms with one other and their environment.

Community: It is the relationships among groups of various species.

Species: Groups of alike individuals who be likely to mate and produce viable, fertile offspring.

Populations: Individuals of the same groups who tend to mate with one other in a limited geographic region.

Individuals: One or more cells exemplified by an exceptional arrangement of DNA 'information'. These can be multi-cellular or unicellular.

Organ System:  A group of cells, tissues and organs which perform a precise major function.

Organ: It is a group of cells or tissues executing an overall function.

Tissue: It is a group of cells executing a specific function.

Cell: It is the basic unit of living things. Each and every cell consists of some sort of hereditary material, energy acquiring chemicals, structures and so on.

Organelle: It is the subunit of cell; an organelle is comprised in a specific sub-cellular function.

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