A major reason for the emergence of diversity as an important challenge is changing demographics. Older workers, women, minorities, and those with more education are now entering the workforce in record numbers. However, for now it can be noted that the composition of today's and tomorrow's workforce is and be much different from that of the past. For example, USA today calculates a diversity index (based on population racial and ethnic probabilities) that shows now almost 1 out of 2 people randomly selected in the U.S. are racially or ethnically different, up from 1 out of 3 in 1980. At the more micro level, assuming talent and ability are equally distributed throughout the population and that everyone has an equal opportunity, this means that there should be diversity in every level of an organization. However such an assumption is not yet valid because diversity has not to date noticeably reached the upper levels of most organizations.