Subsystems in Organization
Every system has subsystems which are interrelated to constitute system as entity. Since the organization is a system it contains various subsystems. Each subsystem is identified by certain objectives processes roles structures and norms of conduct. The various subsystems of the organization constitute the mutually depended parts. These subsystems interact through interactions create new patterns of behaviour that are separate from but related to the pattern specified by the original system. This is known as emerged behaviour. Since variables are interdependent, the true influence of altering one aspect of the system cannot be determined by the varying it alone. Similarly when any of the subsystem fails to function properly, the impact on other subsystems is immediate and affects the total organization.
In an organization system, there are various ways of classifying subsystems.
Technical subsystems: Technical subsystem is a vehicle for conduct of work in the organization. It refers to the knowledge for the performance of tasks, including the techniques used in the transformation of inputs into the outputs. The basic component of the Technical subsystem is a group of tasks or activities that can be performed by an individual.
Social subsystem: every organization has a Social subsystem which is composed of individuals and groups in interaction. When people are set to perform their tasks, they develop some sort of informal relationship. These relationships are not patterned on formal basis but are different. Because of these informal relationships, they may be modification of expectancies of behaviour.
Power subsystem: every organization has a Power subsystem and people in the organization elaborate their behaviour through the power relationship. Power is one's ability to influence others to achieve desired results. Power distribution in the organization is both formal and informal. That is why some people are more powerful in the organization and some people are powerless in spite of occupying the similar power centrals.
Managerial subsystem: when organization units are arranged and operated as a system, each subsystem is viewed as a distinct entity and its relationship or contribution to the next level in the hierarchical structure is programmed and measured, but always in consideration of the total system. Since organizations are deliberate and purposive creations, their management should lead towards the realization of their objectives. Management of a system involves two processes; operation and review and control. Operation refers to conversion of inputs into outputs, commonly known as transportation or conversion process.