This type of communication refers to communication between various departments or units representing the same level, or people within the same or different departments, without having a superior-subordinate relationship. It flow between persons at the same hierarchical level. The main object of this type of communication is to coordinate the effort of different departments performing different but related activities. Such communications may be oral or written.
It helps in coordinating the activities of departments at the same level.
Different departmental heads may sit together and thrash out problems of time, money, labor, and materials.
a) Rivalry among employees
d) Lack of motivation