Why was medicine not a commodity


Book name- the social transformation of american medicine by paul starr

Ch 2:

1. Why was medicine "not a commodity" in early American society?

2. Explain what karl Polanyi meant by a "double movement": what were the two sides?

3. Before the nineteenth century and laissez faire economics, who regulated prcies?

4. Why were doctors typically paid "in-kind"?

5. Between 1790 and 1850 why was the overcrowding in the medical profession?

6. In pre-industrial America, what was a common second occupation for doctors?

7. In addition to not having money to pay for services, what does starr say was one of the main reasons why americans were not demanding profession medical services?

8. Before the telephone, how were doctors summoned?

9. How did transportation (ie, automobiles and railroad), telegraph, and telephones changes the market for doctors? Compare access and quality of care before and after transportation improved.

10. How did mental institutions gain respect and authority? What caused the change in the view of mental illness?

11. How did the creation of medical institutions and mental institutions save doctors' time and expand their opportunities?

12. What effect did hospital hygiene and antiseptic surgery have on the status of hospitals?

13. What were the reasons why doctors shifted to office visits and away from housecalls? How was this related to specialization?

Ch 3:

1. How does Starr distinguish a profession from an occupation?

2. D.W.Cathell, wrote a medical practice manual called The Physician himself. What were some of the things he emphasized as important for doctors?

3. On page 94 starr discuss the AMA's code of ethics and "peculiar reserve" what does this mean?

4. How does starr define "sect"?

5. What were some of the appealing characteristics of homoeopathy?

6. When was licensing restored to medicine? Were other professions licensed at this time as well?

7. Why was Herbert Spencer against licensing? What is a social Darwinist? Was he one?

8. Why did johns Hopkins agree to accept women into its medical school in 1890? Did more women apply?

9. What new standards did Charles eliot implement at Harvard in 1870. What were the results?

10. What was the impact of Abraham flexner's report Bulletin number four?

11. Was the ama for or against the patent medicine business? Why?

12. What effect did muckrackers have on medicine?

13. Kuznets and Friedman found that the average annual income of physicians for 1929-1934 was $4,081. How did this compare with other workers? To what did they attribute the excess income?

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