From Kant's perspective, is someone who endorses the maxim "Honesty is the best policy"necessarily worthy of moral praise? Explain, especially emphasizing Kant's different types of motives in relation to duty (a.k.a. "Typology of Motives"), and his contention that only acting out of a certain type of motive qualifies one for genuine moral praise.
What are two fundamental, non-egoistic, classic normative theories of ethics? [HINT: Kantian deontology and Millsian utilitarianism] Provide a general characterization of each of these perspectives and correlate them with Kant and Mill. Emphasize the contrasting answers that these philosophers give to "What makes ‘right' right?" Additionally, describe the key principles of both Kant's and Mill's theories. [HINT: the categorical imperative and the greatest happiness principle] Finally, be able to apply these classic normative theories to one of Kant's examples or to an alternative example.
What is the fundamental form and the two primary variations on the self-interest question? What ispsychological egoism, and how does it differ from ethical egoism? What strategy do psychological egoists use to argue for their view? Explain and illustrate this strategy. Despite this strategy (or perhaps because of it!), there are several strong arguments against this theory. Describe at least two of these counter-arguments, including the point that if p.e. is unfalsifiable, then there is a fundamental problem for the theory.
According to the relativist perspective, should we criticize a different culture's or another nation's moral traditions? Why not? [HINTS: appeal to tolerance, ethnocentrism, etc.] Despite this perspective, does Martha Nussbaum believe we have a right to criticize and even condemn local traditions? On what basis? Human nature? Human dignity? Equality? Explain. Related to her conception of human nature, what are some of the "Central Human Functional Capabilities?" If a human life lacks any of these capabilities, what is Nussbaum's judgment of that life?
What is the issue in the relativism-objectivism (objectivism is a.k.a. universalism, especially in Nussbaum's argument) debate? Explain, utilizing questions or examples to demonstrate your understanding. Describe the cultural differences argument for ethical relativism. How would an objectivist thinker such as James Rachels critically evaluate the c.d.a.? On what analogy does this critique depend? [HINT: shape of the earth analogy] Furthermore, is it possible to question the primary premise of the c.d.a., despite the apparent disagreement about morality illustrated by Herodotus and 20th century anthropologists? [HINT: common, "deeper" values underlying superficial differences;.