Attempt all the questions.
Question1) Survival of fittest is quickly becoming survival of the fittest to learn and perform. In this context, building ‘High Performance Organisations’ is going to be critical for continued success. Suggest OD interventions which will facilitate achieving this objective.
Questio0n2) Explain T–Group training, behaviour modelling and life goal exercises describing the premise, process and purpose of such interventions. How are they different from Grid OD and Process Consultation?
Question3) Choose 4 cases of OD interventions
(i) Cultural Intervention
(ii) Human Resources Management Intervention
(iii) Techno structural intervention and
(iv) a Strategic intervention. Explain the intervention design, inputs and the outcomes in each of these cases.
Question4) Describe concept of Schein’s cultural analysis taking the example of a cultural change in an organization. According to you, which is more challenging –a cultural intervention or a structural one? Give arguments to support your answer.
Case Study: Turnarounds are when Leadership matters most.
Gillette’s performance was strong through mid 1990’s but by beginning of 2001, this global consumer products company had experienced a number of years of flat sales, declining operating margins, loss of market share. Its Mach3 shaving system was the blockbuster product, but company was suffering the effects of its own reliance on trade loading- the practice of offering discounts to retail customers at the end of the quarter in order to move products and achieve sales targets, thus sacrificing margins and jeopardizing next quarter’s sales. In the meantime, since executives in different product groups and locations rarely sat in the same meetings, initiatives in their different areas were not coordinated. SKU’s (stock keeping units, or product variations) proliferated as groups made decisions without informing other departments, leading to waste and duplication. Respect among peers declined.
Jim Kilts was appointed CEO at this time. On his first day as CEO of Gillette in February 2001, he held a full meeting of the operating Committee. He presented the detailed set of slides outlining his style and leadership philosophy. He expected fact based management, open communication, simplicity, and collaboration from Gillette’s line managers and employees. Featured prominently on list titled” My style” was the statement, “If something bothers you, I want to open dialogue.” Kilts then outlined results of his month long external review of the company former to joining, detailed analysis of Gillette’s strengths and weaknesses. He was also planning to present this information to Board. Kilts immediately established multiple communication channels- weekly staff meetings, weekly business overviews from all executives worldwide, quarterly two –day off site meetings for senior executives, a Chairman’s page on Gillette’s intranet where anyone in a company can post questions and receive answers from Kilts himself, distribution of videotaped dialogues with Kilts for managers in the international locations he can’t visit personally, and employee roundtables.
One of Kilts ‘s most controversial moves, but one that increased disclosure among colleagues at Gillette and pushed communication forward, was to expose performance data regarding his top team. CEO introduced quarterly report cards for senior managers, and after first ones were completed, he posted results for whole team to see (anonymously at first) so that everyone knew where they stood in relation to their peers. Those scorecards were followed by senior manager’s open presentations of their priorities for the next quarter. Secrecy and denial were relegated to the trash bin; there was no way to hide information.
Nature of conversations at Gillette shifted from individual reports to group dialogue. Previously, managers told me, they will go to meetings, say their piece, and go away. With Kilts at the helm, managers said their piece- and stayed to answer question. “He does not attempt to wrap himself or company in any sort of mystical qualities,” an executive observed. Anything was open for questioning.
Kilts’s initial actions at Gillette helped people look at facts without becoming defensive about them. Kilts’s message from day one was that he had no preconceived notions about people and no plans to make sweeping changes in management ranks.” We have a very good cadre of people who want to do right thing,” he said. One of his priorities was to eliminate finger pointing that had gone on in the past. Frequent meetings among managers who never had much of an opportunity to sit together before made this possible. If the executive said that he did not reach the certain target as someone else did not do his part, Kilts will turn to that person and ask what happened and to remind everyone of the overarching objectives and priorities linking the areas. A participant recalled that first quarter off-site under Kilts was tension ridden, with outbursts of anger as people played out the blame game culture of the past. But over time the meetings became more effective and team oriented. “I don’t want competition among functions or senior staff. Anything that even hints at it is countered productive. I hate anyone saying ‘Jim said’ or ‘Jim wants’ or ‘the board said’ or ‘the board wants ‘as the reason for doing or not doing something. Things are done, or not based on rigorous assessments and considered deliberations,” Kilts said.
Executive Committee meetings were increasingly devoted to themes that cut across divisions and members discovered areas in which they can combine forces to tackle new business opportunities. Gillette’s complex organizational matrix meant that many operations issues arose at intersection of groups- for instance, product managers required resources and support from IT department or needed to coordinate their launches with the help of sales representatives at the field. Jim Kilts encourages formation of operating committees in each business unit or regional group, and then additional encouraged the creation of cross matrix operating committees that included representatives from all functions and areas on which business unit depended. The view across organisation revealed business opportunities that will have been hard for any unit to see by itself. For instance, Gillette’s Oral-B business unit, centered in the United States, produced the quality line of toothbrushes, and its Braun division, headquartered in Germany, had developed world-class portable appliances technology. But, unlike its competitors, Gillette didn’t make a battery-powered toothbrush-until new relationships were formed across the ocean.
Above is a case in reference to an unmistakable conclusion: Turnarounds are when leadership matters most. Managers could stem losses with a few bold strokes, like slashing budgets. But putting the organisation on positive path toward future success also needs that leaders energise their workforce, throughout the ranks. Small wins that newly empowered people create are the first signs that the turnaround is on track. How this is done has a big impact on whether turnaround is the temporary fix or a path to sustainability.
Question5)a) What type of intervention has been introduced here?
b) Diagnosis process in planned change is the most vital element of an OD exercise. Examine this statement with reference to the case.
c) Discuss change process planned and worked out by Jim Kilts. Was it the best method? If not, suggest some alternative course of action/ modifications.
d) Can turnaround be made possible without effective leadership? Why?