Explain Indenture

Explain the term Indenture and also describe their provisions?




The Indenture is a written agreement among issuer and creditors detailing words of borrowing. (As well act of trust). The indenture comprises the given provisions:

A) Bond terms:

Registered form – the ownership is recorded, payment prepared directly to owner
Bearer form – payment is prepared to holder (that is, bearer) of bond

B) Total face amount of bonds issued

C) The explanation of any property employed as security

•    Collateral – firmly speaking, pledged securities
•    Mortgage securities – protected by mortgage on genuine property
•    Debenture – an un protected debt with 10 or more years to the maturity
•    Note – a debenture with ten years or less maturity
•    Seniority – order of priority of claims

D) Subordinated debenture – of lower priority than the senior debt

E) The repayment arrangements:
Sinking fund – an account administered by the bond trustee for early on redemption

F) Any call provisions:

•    Call provision – Permits Company to “call” or re-purchase part or whole of issue
•    Call premium – amount by which the call price surpasses the par value
•    Deferred call – firm can’t call bonds for a designated period
•    Call protected – the explanation of a bond throughout the period it cannot be called

G) Any protective covenants:
•    Protective covenants – indenture conditions which restrict the actions of firms
•    Negative covenant – “thou shalt not” sell major assets, and so on.
•    Positive covenant – “thou shalt” keep working capital at or on top of $X, and so on.

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