The Cell Biology is a branch of natural sciences which studies cells - their physiological and chemical properties, their formation, and the organelles which are present in them, interactions with the environment they are in, their life division cycle, and death. Or we can say that, it is the study of the cell as the whole unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions which occur within the living cell. This is done on the microscopic and cellular level both.
Cell biology was previously known by the name of the cytology. The word cytology is obtained from the Greek word ‘kytos' which means ‘container'. The Cell is the fundamental (the structural and functional) unit of the life. It was discovered by the scientist, Robert Hooke. The study of the cell is of utmost significance because all the living beings are composed of the cells only. Cells are building blocks of the living organisms. Thus, it is imperative that one studies about dynamics, structures and the functions of cells and the entities of it.
Immunology, biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology is some of fields of the biology which are closely related to the subject of the cell biology. Some of the internal cellular structures which are being under this field are as follows:
Cytoplasm - It is the dense liquid lying between cell membrane holding all cell organelles (except the nucleus).
Endoplasmic Reticulum - It is the eukaryotic organelle which forms an interconnected network of the vesicles, tubules, and cisternae within the cells. It is the main site for the protein synthesis.
Chloroplast - This is the cell organelle only found in plants. It assists the process of photosynthesis in plants.
Golgi Apparatus - It is the eukaryotic cell organelle which is involved in the processes like packaging of the macromolecules like that of proteins and lipids.
Nucleus - It is found in the eukaryotic cells and comprises most of cells genetic material.
Mitochondrion -The main energy-producing organelle which releases the energy in form of the ATP. A number of the cell processes which are studied in detail are -Glycolysis, DNA repair, Respiration, Photosynthesis, Metabolism, Cell death, Transcription, Cell signaling, Reproduction, Adhesion, mRNA splicing, Active transport and the Passive transport etc.
Though the cell is actually small and is not visible by human eyes, cell biology is extremely broad. In this small unit of living beings, several numbers of mysteries, life-giving chemicals are present and the several processes take place without which the life would cease to end.
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