Solid state amplifiers:
Solid State amplifiers have better technical specifications as compared to valve amplifiers. But when solid state amplifiers were initial launched it was noticed that they sounded flat and unresponsive in comparison to well made valve amplifiers. Also solid state amplifier had to be twice as powerful as the valve amplifier to sound as loud.
Amplifiers and speakers have usually been marketed independently of each other. There has been little attention in how amplifiers and speakers interrelate. Valve technology was tiresomely assembled with manual labor while Solid state technology is mass produced at the fraction of cost. Economical rationalism and modern marketing easily pushed aside the older valve technology.
Basic technical principles:
Several professional audio providers and audiophiles have misconceptions about how the solid state (transistor) amplifier functions. Misconceptions take place as basic principles aren't understood.
The solid state amplifier comprises of three sections:
1) Input driver circuit amplifies small input signal to the larger size, about x20 to x50.
2) Large output transistors add current to amplified signal to be sent to speaker.
3) Power supply converts 110V / 22OV AC mains to 2 DC supply Voltages that power amplifier.
Output stage comprises of 2 or more large output transistors bolted to the heat sink (NPN and PNP).
The solid state amplifier has 2 (DC) power supplies (+V and -V). 2 power supplies are connected in series. Middle is connected to chassis. One terminal of speaker is connected to middle chassis and other speaker terminal is switched between 2 supplies.
Speaker is joined across one power supply at a time. Thus maximum Voltage across speaker can be no greater than 1V5 at any one point in time.
Solid state devices:
Solid-state electronic devices are part of our everyday lives. Transistor was the first solid-state device to come in commercial use in 1960s. Solid-state electronic devices have replaced vacuum tubes in just about all electronics devices. Vacuum tubes are still utilized in transmitters of radio stations, several guitar amplifiers and some audiophile equipment.
One of the first solid-state devices was the crystal radio. In the crystal radio, piece of wire positioned on crystal's surface is capable to divide lower-frequency audio from higher-frequency transmitted radio carrier wave. This form of signal detection is because of crystal's ability to pass a current in only one direction.
Solid-state derived its name from path which electrical signals take through solid pieces of semi-conductor material. Before use of solid-state devices, like common transistor, electricity passed through different elements inside of heated vacuum tube. Solid-state devices, like a transistor, use conductors to manage flow of signals through the circuit.
Solid state devices called diodes have the replaced rectifier vacuum tubes, utilized to transform alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). Cool-running light-emitting diodes (LEDs), another solid-state device utilized for indicators on front panel of computer and monitor, have replaced earlier incandescent bulbs. Multiple bright LEDs are also utilized for third stoplight on several U.S. vehicles and for traffic signals.
Solid-state miniature electronic components are in many places:
Advantages of Vacuum tubes:
Disadvantages of Vacuum tubes:
Advantages of transistors:
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