Operating System

Operating System (OS):

It is software that communicates with the hardware and let other programs to run. This is comprised of system software, or the basic files of your computer require booting up and functioning. Each desktop computer, Smartphone and tablet includes an operating system that provides fundamental functionality for the device.

Today’s operating systems tend to have graphical user interfaces (GUIs) that employ pointing devices for input. A mouse is an instance of such a pointing device, as is a stylus. Commonly utilized operating systems for IBM-compatible personal computers include Linux, Microsoft Windows, and UNIX variations. For Macintosh computers, Linux, BSD, Mac OS X, and some Windows variants are used commonly.
 
Mobile devices, such like tablets and smart phones also include operating systems that offer a GUI and can run applications. Common mobile OSes contains Android, iOS, and Windows Phone. These OSes are specifically developed for portable devices and therefore are designed around touch screen input. Whilst early mobile operating systems lacked various features found in desktop OSes, now they include advanced capabilities, such like the ability to run third-party apps and run multiple apps at once.

As the operating system serves as a computer's fundamental user interface, it considerably affects how you interact with the device. Hence, many users prefer to use a specific operating system. For instance, one user may prefer to use any computer along with Mac OS X rather than Windows-based PC. Another user may desire an Android-based Smartphone rather than an iPhone, which runs the iOS.

While software developers develop applications, they ought to be writing and compile them for a particular operating system. It is because each OS communicates along the hardware differently and has a particular application program interface, or API, that the programmer must use. Whereas various popular programs are cross platform, meaning they have been developed for multiple OSes, some are available only for a single operating system. Hence, when choosing a computer, it is significant to make sure the operating system supports the programs you want to run.

Operating systems can be classified as follows:

Multi-user:

Let two or more users to run programs at the similar time. Some of the operating systems permit hundreds or even thousands of concurrent users.

Multiprocessing:

It supports running any program on more than one CPU.

Multitasking:

Let more than one program to run concurrently.

Multithreading:

Let different parts of a single program to concurrently run.

Real time:

Instantly responds to input. General-purpose operating systems, such like DOS and UNIX, are not real-time.

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