Factors necessary for seed germination

Factors necessary for seed germination:

A number of factors are needed for the procedure of germination. They are of two types: external and internal.

External factors:

1. Water:

Seeds are usually highly dehydrated with only 6 to15percent of water content in their cells. Thus they have low physiological activity. Water gives adequate hydration to the concentrated protoplasm of the transport gases, a cause hydrolysis of reserve food and its transport and permit embryo cells to grow in size.

2. Oxygen:

Oxygen is necessary for aerobic respiration to discharge energy for the metabolic activities, thus with the exception of the few plants. (Example: rice, Typha and so on.) Seeds generally need oxygen or good aeration for their germination.

3. Temperature:

Seeds need a definite temperature range in which they germinate. Generally seeds germinate within temperature range of 50C to 400C. Though, the optimum temperature or seed germination lies between 25 to 300C for most of the species.

4. Light:

Light is not a necessary factor for the germination of most of the seeds. Though some are light sensitive and their germination is influenced by the existence or absence of light.

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